What Is A Grain Thresher Machine ? Operation And Maintenance
When wheat, barley, corn,millet or other grains are harvested, the grain must be separated from the rest of the plant before it can be used to make food. This separation is called threshing. Threshing is an important process after harvesting of crops like wheat and paddy. It involves beating the stem of the crops to take out grains.The implement used to thresh the crops is called a threshing machine or grain thresher machine.
Development Of Grain Thresher Machine
As the husk is quite hard, threshing is a violent process. Primitive threshing methods involved beating by hand with a flail or trampling by animal hooves.Flail, which is simply a short stick attached by a cord to a longer handle. The grain was spread out on the ground (yes, disgusting) and beaten with the stick to open the casings.Other methods included “treading”, in which livestock trampled the grain with their hooves or dragged a sledge over the grain.
The invention of the threshing machine dates to the early 19th century. Andrew Meikle invented the first threshing machine in 1784 in Scotland. The credit for developing the modern version of the thresher is given to Hiram A. and John A. Pitts, who patented it in 1837 in the United States. With advancements in technology, modern threshing machines have become much more prominent, faster, and more efficient, capable of processing large quantities of grain quickly.
Wheat thresher machine consists of a threshing cylinder, concave, cylinder casing, cleaning system and feeding chute. In axial flow concept, the crop is fed from one end, it moves axially and the straw is thrown out from the other end after complete threshing of the crop. During threshing, the crop rotates three and half times around the cylinder and all the grains get detached. The threshing cylinder is of peg type.
Application : It is used for threshing of paddy crop.
Maize corn thresher machine are of two types namely, spike tooth type and axial flow type. Spike tooth type thresher has cylindrical drum having five to six rows of spikes or pegs mounted on periphery of drum. Threaded mild steel bolts or spikes of same material are used. Thresher with spike is better than bolts as former takes less energy as compared to later. Threshing is accomplished due to impact and rubbing action. The separation is affected through aspiration of material falling through concave. Cleaning is done on a set of oscillating sieves provided in the machine. The fan and cylinder are mounted on the same shaft that makes construction simpler as compared to beater type threshers. The drive to the oscillating sieves is provided from main shaft with the help of crossed belt.
Application:It is used for threshing of corn,maize.
The multi crop thresher consists of rasp bar threshing cylinder, oscillating sieves, concave and winnowing and cleaning attachment. The rasp-bar cylinder is made of cast iron rings, sheet metal and toothed racks and is fitted on the main shaft running on two heavy pedal bearings. Various pulleys of different sizes are fitted on this shaft to transmit power to winnowing and fan attachment. Adjustments for cylinder and blower speeds and concave clearance are provided to make the machines suitable for threshing various crops.
Application :It is suitable for threshing paddy, wheat, maize, ,sorghum,millet etc.
Benefits Of Thresher Machine
1.The introduction of the threshing machine transformed the entire farming process. It became a popular tool among farmers, and it became an essential part of agricultural machinery.
2.It allowed farmers to increase the amount of land they could farm, as it reduced the need for manual labour.
3.The grain thresher machine was not only efficient but also faster, It made it possible to harvest twice the amount of grain that could have been harvested manually,which allows farmers to reap more crops in less time.
4.Multi crop grain thresher machine are not only limited to threshing wheat and barley but also for threshing other crops like oats, rye, and rice. It also helped reduce the number of lost grains during the harvesting process.
Operation Of Thresher Machine
1.Make sure choose right motor or diesel engine according the machine’s technical data, the machine has the motor fixed frame.
2.Ensure that all the security knobs on the concave are tightened down and the concave is snug.
3.Rotate the threshing drum by hand to make sure that there are no restrictions to rotation.
4.Slide the idler pulley up on the slide to tension the belt (remember to only tension the slack side of the belt) and make sure that the belt is seated properly in all pulleys and is not rubbing on
anything. All set screws on the pulley should be tightened and the nuts on the idler should be wrench tightened.
5.Replace the belt cover and ensure that the output is in the down right position.
6.Set the engine throttle to the desired speed, set the chock if needed and pull start the engine. For further instructions for starting the engine please consult the engine manual.
Notice: Ensure that the engine is filled with oil before you start the engine, instructions to do so can be
found in the engines user manual. Running the motor without oil can result in damage to the engine.
7.Load reaped crop in to the input and allow it to slide down the ramp. Never reach your hand in to the threshing area or attempt to throw crop into the threshing area.
Notice: The inside surfaces are not painted and are unprotected, they may develop rust. Threshing wet or moist crop is not recommended.
8.Collect threshed grain in container at the end of the output.
9.Safely turn OFF the main drive motor.
Maintenance Of Thresher Machine
1.Before starting,make sure the every part joint is reveal able,check the turning parts to see if there is any conflict.
2.Before starting,should regularly inspect the bolt and nut fastening and implemented regularly ,specially after working in fist day.
3.The place of the machine to need lubricating, often note lubrication,Gear box lubricant require a change quarterly,clean the main shaft bearing and added lithium base grease annually should fill lube to the chain every four hours, must be removed the dust,weeds in the chain before oiling.
4.When stop work ,should let the machine idling for a few minutes, blowing off machines dust, weeds, and then shut down, then clean the grass and dust of the machine internally and/or externally to prevent rust paint.
5.Replace the spare parts must conform to our factory provides performance standards.The machine can’t be cleaner by water flush, but must pay special attention to the bearing parts can’t direct injection (such as necessary, can use degreasing agents shall not be used, but the acidic or alkaline cleaning).
6.Be sure to safely power OFF and unplug the crusher machine before attempting any clean-up procedures.
7.Note:Make sure the area around the outlet, floor and your hands are completely dry when plugging or unplugging the electrical cord to/from the outlet.
8.All parts which have been in contact with your product should be thoroughly cleaned with a brush and air hose. Note: If parts of the thresher machine need to be removed for proper cleaning, be sure to check with the production manager.
9.Be sure to thoroughly clean the surrounding work area of any debris.
10.Dispose of all debris into the appropriate waste container.
11.Initiate check-out procedures by having the cleaned crusher machine and surrounding work area inspected by the pilot plant manager.
12.Before inspecting, adjusting or repairing the machine, please turn OFF all motors at the push-button control.Be sure to turn OFF and lock out disconnect switches for all motors.DO NOT remove covers or guards until all moving parts have stopped. Take great care in handling heavy parts. Lift and handle them only with equipment that is rated and designed to do the job.
13.Inspect the threshing machine after every use for any leakage or broken parts. Report any leakage or broken parts to the pilot plant manager. All final inspections will be performed by the pilot plant manager.
14.While lubrication requirements generally associated with millet thresher machine have been minimized,it is imperative that the simple lubrication instructions furnished in the “Operating Instructions” manual be followed.